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Al Pacino’s biography
Al Pacino is an American actor of cinema and theater, who has already earned the rights to be called the living pillar of Hollywood: his filmography includes such iconic images of cinema as Michael Corleone, Tony Montana, Colonel Slade and even devil himself.
Al Pacino’s childhood
Alfredo James Pacino was born in the family of insurer Salvatore Pacino and housewife Rose Gerardi. Alfredo’s maternal Grandparents had moved to the States from the Sicilian town of Corleone; the future actor’s father also had Italian roots.Salvatore and Rose had married at a very young age: he was 20 and she was just 17. A year later the baby was born, but that didn’t save the hasty marriage - two-year-old Alfredo had to survive the separation of his parents and move with his mother to her parents on the outskirts of New York, to South Bronx.Even nowadays the town is associated with screaming poverty, crime, and desolation for a typical New Yorker, but the situation was much worse in the early 1940s. So little Alfredo was forbidden to go outside alone until seven years old and the only entertainment for the boy was the local cinema, where he was taken by his mother in the evenings. Languished from boredom during the day, he colorfully retold the stories he had seen to his grandmother who looked after him - so the boy's interest in cinema broke out.But as soon as the boy got the opportunity to 'go out into people' himself, he literally 'broke off the chain': teachers at school couldn’t cope with his behavior, not talking about academic achievement. At the age of 9 the boy tried his first cigarette, and at the age of 13 began drinking and smoking weed. The death of his two close friends from an overdose, kept him away from hard drugs.
Al Pacino’s theatrical career
As a teenager Alfredo or Sonny Scott as his first nickname wanted to become a professional baseball player, but later, after watching the staging of Chekhov's “Seagull”, his desire was replaced by the dream of an acting career. Soon the young man entered the famous School of Performing Arts named after Fiorello La Guardia in New York, for which he received the nickname 'Actor' from his fellows.In 1960, the 'Actor' became part of the New York theater underground: he acted scenes in public places along with his friend, and then passed a hat for donations. Later he joined the Herbert Berghof Studio (HB Studio), where he met teacher Charlie Laughton, who taught the guy acting skills and later became his best friend.In 1962 43-year-old Rose died of leukemia, and a year later grandfather, who replaced Alfredo his father, passed away.In 1966, after many unsuccessful attempts, Alfredo Pacino auditioned in the Actor's Studio in Manhattan. He studied in the class of Lee Strasberg, who taught the students the system of Stanislavsky.In 1967 the first roles in commercial theaters followed. At first, he performed in the Boston 'Charles Playhouse' theater for more than a modest paycheck - $125 per week. At that time, the actor came up with a sounding nickname for himself by cutting 'Alfredo' to the first syllable. At the same time, Al Pacino made his Broadway debut in the 'Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie?' spectacle, for which he received enthusiastic reviews from the audience and the Tony Award (the American analog of the Golden Mask).In 1968 the actor already played at the New York Astor Place theater: the only role in his repertoire was street punk, Murph, in the staging of 'The Indian Wants the Bronx ', where the actor’s close friend John Cazale also played.
Al Pacino’s first roles in cinema
Alfredo began to receive his first roles in the first weeks of training at the Actors Studio, though episodic and practically unpaid. In 1968, he made his debut in the 'N.Y.P.D.' series (Episode: 'Deadly Circle of Violence') playing a third-rate character named John James.In 1969, Alfredo received his first role in a full-length film ('Me, Natalie'). The talented play of the actor was noticed by Martin Bregman, one of the best producers of that time, who offered Pacino cooperation. Looking ahead, we note that the partnership turned out to be productive: Bregman produced such films with Al Pacino as the 'Serpico', 'Scarface' and 'Dog Day Afternoon”In 1971 Al Pacino played drug addict Bobby in “The Panic in Needle Park” by Jerry Schatzberg. The film became the first major work of the actor.
In 1971 director Francis Ford Coppola, who was looking for an actor for the role of Michael Corleone in 'The Godfather' project, which, according to the management of the 'Paramount' studio, promised to become nothing more than an ordinary gangster drama, was impressed by Al Pacino’s play in 'The Panic in Needle Park' and invited him to the casting.
Al Pacino’s casting for the role of Michael Corleone
It must be noted that the role of the son of the godfather of the Mafia was like it had been created for Al Pacino with his Sicilian roots. The characteristic Italian appearance and the hot temper of the actor so impressed Coppola that he decisively rejected the other applicants for the role, among which were Robert De Niro, Dustin Hoffman and Robert Redford, what terrified the bosses of Paramount.However, the success surpassed all the expectations: the drama of the family of Vito Corleone, played by great Marlon Brando, gained the popularity of millions of viewers around the world. 'The Godfather' was the first film where the mafia was shown from the inside - not just a criminal group concentrating all the significant 'strings' in hands: politicians, businessmen, social figures, but as a family living on the principles of honor, let it be peculiar. In the IMDB international film rating 'The Godfather' is on the second place, conceding “The Shawshank Redemption”
Michael Corleone has secured for Al Pacino the image of a cruel gangster who does not forgive mistakes: 'There are situations when the most extreme measures are justified.'
”The Godfather”- the final scene
The sequel of “The Godfather” was only a matter of time, and very soon the studio management gave Copolla a go-ahead for setting the second part. The making of the picture began in 1974, and during the break, Al Pacino managed to appear in the 'Scarecrow' as swagman-loser Lionel, as well as in the 'Serpico' crime drama, where he played a policeman, torn by a dilemma: to remain an honest representative of law and suffer the mock of colleagues or cross his own principles and become a corrupt policeman too. Both pictures were successful and proved that Al Pacino was not going to stay 'Michael Corleone' till the end of his acting career.The second 'Godfather' became a worthy sequel of the first part. The picture consisted of two storylines - the prehistory of the Corleone mafia family and the events following the death of Don Vito. Here Al Pacino first worked with Robert De Niro (young Vito Corleone).
Al Pacino’s further career
In 1977, Al Pacino was given the role of racer Bobby Deerfield in the 'Bobby Deerfield'. The film was welcomed lightly, unlike Al Pacino’s next job – the '...And Justice for All' drama, where he appeared in a contradictory image of an honest lawyer. The film brought him to Oscar nomination in the category of 'Best Actor', but eventually the award went to Dustin Hoffman for his role in the 'Kramer vs. Kramer' By the way, initially Al Pacino was to play alongside Meryl Streep in the 'Kramer vs. Kramer' but he refused.The 80's started with a fall in career for Al Pacino: the participation in the project 'Cruising ' brought upon him the anger of the gay community, and the next film, a sweet family comedy 'Author! Author! ' was criticized hard at its release.In 1983, director Brian De Palma invited Al Pacino to play in the 'Scarface'. The film, which told the story of Cuban exile Tony Montana, who passed the way from the criminal 'six' to the owner of а cocaine empire, collected a good cashier and, though criticized after the premiere for the topical character of the subject and the large amount of cruelty, over the years it acquired the status of a cult. The partner of Al Pacino became Michelle Pfeiffer, an 80’s sex symbol.
A shot from the “Scarface” with Al Pacino
The next picture the 'Revolution' with Al Pacino and Donald Sutherland was lightly welcomed by the public, so the film didn’t excuse itself from the commercial point of view. The producers accused Al Pacino of failing, and the actor, who was touched, left the cinema for 4 years, returning to the theatrical stage.The actor again appeared on the big screen only in 1989 in the 'Sea of Love'. A year later he returned to the image of a gangster in the picture 'Dick Tracy' about the adventures of a brave detective. The role brought Al Pacino to his second “Oscar” nomination for “Best Supporting Actor”, but the statuette went to Joe Pesci for taking part in the 'Goodfellas'.The same year Al Pacino appeared in the image of aged Michael Corleone in the third part of “The Godfather”. The story told about his controversial character trying to legalize his business and solve the problems of his children, who were played by Franc D'Ambrosio and Sofia Coppola, the daughter of the legendary director.In 1991, he again met Michelle Pfeiffer in the 'Frankie and Johnny' film. Then came the role of the brilliant salesman Ricky Roma in the picture “Glengarry Glenn Ross” (also known as “The Americans”), which brought Al Pacino to his third “Oscar” nomination.In 1993, the long-awaited American Academy Award went to Al Pacino for the 'Scent of a Woman' film in the category of 'Best Actor'. The dramatic picture about the relationship of young student Charlie Simms (Chris O'Donnell) and Frank Slade, a retired cynical colonel completely deprived of sight and dreaming of suicide, produced the effect of a bomb exploding.
Casino Al Pacino
Al Pacino, tango from the “Scent of a woman”
The same year, the actor returned to the image of a drug dealer in the 'Carlito's Way' film, the plot of which seemed to represent an alternative ending for the story about Tony Montana. The main hero, drug dealer Carlito Brigante, went out of prison and craved to quit his past, starting a new, honest life with his beloved.
about the “Carlito’s Way”
In 1995, the premiere of the “Heat” crime drama took place, where viewers witnessed the conflict between the characters of Al Pacino and Robert De Niro, and also appreciated the acting skills of Val Kilmer, Tom Sizemore, and Danny Trejo.Тhe audience also remarked the tandem by Al Pacino and Johnny Depp in the picture 'Donnie Brasco' where young Depp played an FBI agent undercover, and Pacino appeared in the image of an elderly gangster in need of a partner.In 1997 in the opinion of many critics one of the best films of Al Pacino - 'The Devil's Advocate' appeared on the screens. According to the story, an unusually successful young lawyer (Keanu Reeves) received an excellent offer from a large legal corporation. Alongside his wife Mary Anne (Charlize Theron), he moves to a classy apartment in New York and gets acquainted with the head of the company - impressive John Milton, whose role brought Al Pacino the title of 'Best villain' according to MTV. 'Al Pacino played the Devil with pleasure bordering on glee,' - critics stated.
”The Devil’s Advocate”: the dialog between Al Pacino and Keanu Reeves
In 2002, the actor appeared on the set of the 'Insomnia' thriller by Christopher Nolan and played Detective Will Dormer. The same year, Al Pacino performed one of his most beloved images in the 'Simone' science fiction film, which, however, couldn’t boast of a phenomenal number of tickets sold. Here he played a director who had received at the disposal of artificial intelligence, masterfully imitating any actor.Then followed roles in low-budget films the 'Recruit' with Colin Farrell, the 'Gigli' with Ben Affleck and Jennifer Lopez, “The Merchant of Venice” with Jeremy Irons, and also in the 'Angels in America' series.2007 passed for Al Pacino under the auspices of “Ocean's Thirteen” by Steven Soderbergh, where the actor played the role of 'bad guy' Willie Bank, the owner of the casino, who crossed George Clooney and his faithful team.In 2010, Al Pacino starred in the biographical picture 'You Don't Know Jack' playing Dr. Jack Kevorkian, who defended the human right for euthanasia. The role filled the actor’s collection with 'Emmy' and 'Golden Globe' awards. Present at the premiere Kevorkian highly appreciated Al Pacino’s play.In 2011 Al Pacino performed in unusual for him comedy genre with a cameo in the picture “Jack and Jill” with Adam Sandler. The experience was unsuccessful - the actor received an anti-award 'Golden Raspberry' in the nomination for 'The worst male role of the second plan.'Among the latest successful films starring Al Pacino are the touching and sad pictures 'Danny Collins' and 'Manglehorn', which were released in 2014.In 2016, the premiere of the thriller by Japanese director Shintaro Shimosawa 'Misconduct' took place, where the main roles were also played by Anthony Hopkins and Josh Duhamel.
Al Pacino’s personal life
Al Pacino never liked to advertise his personal life, though it was very, very rich. At the dawn of his movie career, he met another starting actress, Jill Clayburgh.Their romantic relationship lasted five years, but in 1971, on the set of the first part of “The Godfather”, Al Pacino twisted the affair with his colleague on the set Diane Keaton, who played the girlfriend of Michael Corleone. In 1974, after the premiere of the second part, their romantic relationship ended.In 1977, Al Pacino dated Marthe Keller, who played his partner Lillian in the film 'Bobby Deerfield' The romance didn’t last long, but the actors stayed friends.In 1989, Al Pacino's daughter Julie Marie was born from a teacher of acting Jan Tarrant.In 1996, Al Pacino was in close relationship with the star of the 'National Lampoon's Vacation ' Beverly D'Angelo, who gave birth to his twin Anton James and Olivia Rose in 2001. Despite common children, the actors stopped communicating in 2003.Al Pacino has repeatedly stated that being a father is the best thing that happened in his life. He always made up his working schedule in a way to spend time with children as much as possible.Even in old age, Al Pacino continued maintaining the image of a handsome lovelace. So in 2013, he shocked fans with a romance with 33-year-old Latin American model Lucila Solá.
Al Pacino nowadays
In 2019, Quentin Tarantino’s thriller Once Upon a Time in Hollywood was released, which brought together such stars as Leonardo DiCaprio, Brad Pitt and Margot Robbie on the set. Al Pacino played a supporting role in it.In addition, in the same year, the premiere of 'Irish' Martin Scorsese, where the actor was already assigned one of the main roles, along with Robert De Niro. In 2020, Al Pacino starred in the series 'Hunters' as Meyer Offerman.
|First appearance||The Godfather|
|Last appearance||The Godfather II|
|Created by||Mario Puzo|
|Portrayed by||John Cazale|
|Title||Soldier, Capo, Underboss|
|Occupation||Mobster, Hotel & Casino Manager, Brothel Owner|
|Children||One illegitimate son with Marguerite 'Rita' Duvall|
Tom Hagen (adopted brother)
Frederico Corleone is a fictional character in Mario Puzo's 1969 novel The Godfather. Fredo is portrayed by American actor John Cazale in the Francis Ford Coppola1972 film adaptation and in the 1974 sequel, The Godfather Part II.
He is the second son of the MafiadonVito Corleone (Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro). Fredo is the younger brother of Sonny (James Caan) and the elder brother to Michael (Al Pacino) and sister, Connie (Talia Shire). Corleone family consigliereTom Hagen (Robert Duvall) is his informally adopted brother.
Being weaker and less intelligent than his brothers, Fredo has little power or status within the Corleone crime family. In the novel, Fredo's primary weakness is his womanizing, a habit he develops after moving to Las Vegas and which earns his father's disfavor. In the films, Fredo's feelings of personal inadequacy and his inability to act effectively on his own behalf are character flaws leading to greater consequences.
In a pivotal scene in the novel and film, Fredo is with his father when assassins working for drug kingpin Virgil Sollozzo (Al Lettieri) gun down Don Corleone in the street. Fredo, terrified, drops his gun, failing to return fire. He sits on the curb next to his severely wounded father, weeping. In the novel, Fredo is sickened after witnessing his father being shot, going into shock. To aid Fredo's recovery and protect him from possible reprisals, Sonny sends his younger brother to Las Vegas under the protection of Don Anthony Molinari of San Francisco. While in Las Vegas, Fredo learns the casino trade and becomes acquainted with former hitmanMoe Greene (Alex Rocco), who runs a major Vegas hotel that the Corleone family bankrolled. When Fredo's womanizing starts affecting business, Greene slaps him in public.
After Sonny is assassinated, Vito chooses Michael as his successor of the Corleone Family. This creates a lasting rift between the two surviving brothers. When Michael learns that Greene slapped Fredo, he is angered and confronts Greene, but is also dismayed that Fredo has fallen under Greene's influence. When Fredo scolds Michael for being openly hostile to Greene, Michael in turn berates Fredo for openly taking sides against the family during a meeting with Greene, warning him never to do so again.
The Godfather Part II
By the beginning of The Godfather Part II, Fredo has become Michael's underboss, though he has only nominal power. During a large family gathering, Fredo is unable to control his intoxicated wife, Deanna Dunn (Marianna Hill). When she dances and flirts with another man, he furiously drags her off the dance floor and threatens to hit her, though Deanna drunkenly mocks him until one of Michael's staff hauls her away.
Hagen is ordered to bring Senator Pat Geary (G. D. Spradlin) under the Corleone Family's control to gain his assistance in obtaining gambling licenses. After the senator refuses to help, he is implicated in a prostitute's murder, which the film implies was a setup by Michael to bring the senator to heel. Hagen offers the Corleone family's help in eliminating the problem in exchange for the senator's 'friendship'. Hagen tells Geary that Fredo operates the brothel, and 'it will be as if she never existed'. Geary agrees to their terms.
Fredo later betrays Michael after being approached by Johnny Ola (Dominic Chianese), an associate of rival gangster Hyman Roth (Lee Strasberg). Ola and Roth tell Fredo that Michael is being particularly difficult in business negotiations between Roth's organization and the Corleone family. Fredo secretly agrees to aid them in exchange for compensation. An attempt is made on Michael's life. The film never reveals what specific assistance Fredo provides Ola and Roth against Michael, how much he knew of their intentions, or what he was offered in return.
While in Havana negotiating with Roth, Michael discovers that Fredo is the family traitor behind the assassination attempt on him. After telling Michael that he had never met Ola before, Fredo later carelessly tells Geary that he had been to a nightclub with Ola. Michael overhears the conversation and realizes that Fredo is the traitor within the family. He confronts Fredo, delivering the kiss of death. Amid the chaos of American-backed dictator Fulgencio Batista fleeing Fidel Castro's rebel army, Michael pleads with Fredo to leave the country with him. Frightened, Fredo runs away into the crowd. Michael's men eventually locate Fredo and convince him to return home.
Michael is indicted by a Senate subcommittee investigating organized crime. Michael's former caporegime, Frank Pentangeli (Michael V. Gazzo), is scheduled to testify against Michael at the hearing. A few days before the hearing, Michael asks Fredo what he knows regarding Roth's plans. Fredo claims that he did not know they would make an attempt on Michael's life, and that if he helped Roth, 'there was something in it for me, on my own'. He tells Michael that he resents being passed over to succeed their father; he believes that, as the older brother, he should have taken over the family business after Vito's death. When pressed by Michael, Fredo reveals that the Senate commission's lawyer is on Roth's payroll. Michael disowns Fredo, and privately instructs his personal assassin Al Neri (Richard Bright) that nothing is to happen to Fredo while their mother is alive; the implication being that Fredo will be killed after her death. At their mother's funeral, and at their sister Connie's urging, Michael seemingly forgives Fredo; however, it is merely a ploy to draw Fredo in and have him killed. Soon after, while Fredo and Neri are fishing on Lake Tahoe, Neri executes Fredo as he is reciting the Hail Mary, as Michael watches from his house.
Fredo makes a final appearance in the movie's penultimate scene, a flashback to December 1941. It emerges that Fredo was the only family member to support Michael's decision to drop out of college and join the Marines after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Godfather Part III
Fredo appears only once in the third film, in a flashback depicting his death through archive footage. He is also mentioned many times throughout the film; the dialogue makes it clear that Michael is tormented with guilt over ordering his brother's death, and that it has alienated him from his ex-wife, Kay (Diane Keaton), and his son, Anthony (Franc D'Ambrosio), both of whom know that Michael ordered Fredo's death. The official explanation of Fredo's death, as related by Connie, is that he drowned, although it is left ambiguous whether Connie actually believes this. Michael himself cries out Fredo's name while having a diabeticstroke. Later in the film, he breaks down in tears while confessing having ordered Fredo's death to Cardinal Lamberto (Raf Vallone), who later becomes Pope John Paul I. Michael's daughter, Mary (Sofia Coppola), asks her cousin and love interest, Vincent Corleone (Andy García), if Michael had Fredo killed, but Vincent says it is 'just a story' and changes the subject.
Casino Movie Al Pacino
In The Godfather Returns
Mark Winegardner's novel The Godfather Returns further expands upon the character of Fredo Corleone. It includes explanations for some questions left open by the films, such as the details of Fredo's betrayal of Michael in The Godfather Part II, and how, as was revealed in The Godfather Part III, Anthony knew the truth about Fredo's death.
The novel reveals that Fredo is bisexual, and it also implies that he was molested as a child by his parish priest. Rival gangster Louie Russo exploits rumors of Fredo's sexuality to make Michael look weak, and tries to have him killed while he is with a male lover. The novel also reveals that, in San Francisco, Fredo beats one of his lovers to death after the man recognizes him from a newspaper photo. Hagen covers up the resulting scandal by claiming Fredo killed the man in self-defense. Fredo also has liaisons with many women, having 'knocked up half the cocktail waitresses in Las Vegas'. He meets Marguerite 'Rita' Duvall, who Johnny Fontane sent to his room as a prank. Though hesitant, they have sex, and Fredo pays her to tell Johnny it was the best she had ever had.
At Colma during the funeral for Don Molinari of San Francisco, Fredo gets the idea of setting up a necropolis in New Jersey. The Corleone family would buy the former cemetery land, now prime real estate, and also be a silent partner in the graveyard business. Fredo proposes his plan to Michael, wanting to impress and convince him and others of his abilities. Michael, however, dismisses the plan as unrealistic.
Fredo arrives at the Corleone Christmas party with Deanna Dunn, a fading movie starlet. A few months later they are married. Dunn gets Fredo bit parts in some of her movies. Later, in September 1957, Fredo's Hollywood connections allow him to get his own unsuccessful TV show, The Fred Corleone Show, which airs irregularly, usually on Monday nights, until his death. Meanwhile, Fredo's alcoholism worsens. He discovers Deanna cheating on him with her co-star, and shoots up the car he bought her. When Deanna's co-star tries to attack him, Fredo knocks him unconscious and is arrested. Hagen bails him out, and they get in an argument about Fredo's recklessness and Hagen's blind loyalty to Michael. Despite this, Hagen gets Fredo cleared by claiming the incident was self-defense.
Roth, Ola and traitorous Corleone family caporegime Nick Geraci use Fredo as a pawn to eliminate Michael. Geraci and Ola meet with Fredo, who is blind drunk after having a fight with his wife, and promise to make his necropolis idea a reality in return for information about Michael. Fredo supplies them with information about the Corleone family, particularly financial interests.
Fredo's death plays out as it was filmed in The Godfather Part II. Anthony, about to go fishing with his uncle, is called away by his aunt Connie to go to Reno. He actually never leaves and instead, he is sent to his room, where, from his window, he sees Fredo and Neri out on the lake. Anthony hears a gunshot and sees Neri returning alone, explaining Godfather Part III's revelation that Anthony knows the truth about his uncle's death.
In The Godfather's Revenge
In Winegardner's 2006 sequel, The Godfather's Revenge, Fredo appears in one of Michael's dreams, warning him about an unspecified threat and asking him why he had his own brother killed. Much of the novel portrays Michael dealing with his guilt over Fredo's murder.
In the final chapter of the book, Michael learns that Fredo had an illegitimate child with Michael's ex-girlfriend Rita Duvall.
- Vito Corleone — Father; played by Marlon Brando in The Godfather and by Robert De Niro in The Godfather Part II
- Carmela Corleone — Mother; played by Morgana King
- Santino 'Sonny' Corleone — Brother; played by James Caan
- Constanzia 'Connie' Corleone — Sister; played by Talia Shire
- Michael Corleone — Younger brother; played by Al Pacino
- Tom Hagen — Adopted brother; played by Robert Duvall
- Mary Corleone — Niece; played by Sofia Coppola
- Anthony Corleone — Nephew; played by Anthony Gounaris in The Godfather, played by James Gounaris in The Godfather Part II, played by Franc D'Ambrosio in The Godfather Part III
- Vincent Corleone — Nephew; played by Andy García.
In popular culture
- In reference to Fredo Corleone being the weaker and less intelligent of his brothers, the term 'Fredo' has come to refer to a weak member of a group, especially one of a number of siblings in a family, regardless of ethnicity.
- An episode of the British comedy series The IT Crowd entitled 'Jen the Fredo' references the character.
- In The Sopranos episode 'Sentimental Education', when A.J. Soprano's guidance counselor tells his English teacher to raise the grade of his term paper that was '90 percent CliffsNotes', the English teacher refers to A.J. as 'Fredo Corleone', alluding to the fact that he is the least intelligent member of a powerful Italian crime family.
- The official website of the Donald Trump 2020 presidential campaign offered 'Fredo Unhinged' T-shirts following a viral YouTube video of CNN television journalist Chris Cuomo taking offence to being called 'Fredo' by an apparent stranger, claiming it to be an ethnic slur. Cuomo's comparison of the usage of 'Fredo' to an ethnic slur caused debate on Twitter.Edward Falco, the author of 2012 novel The Family Corleone said he agreed with Cuomo that 'Fredo' was directed as an ethnic slur, not just meaning someone weak and incompetent but a weak and incompetent Italian. It sounds close to 'Guido,' he said, a more prominent insult toward Italian Americans, though he said Cuomo went 'overboard' when he had compared it to the n-word. Others did not agree with his purported claim of it being an ethnic slur.
- The Godfather (2006 video game) – Fredo appears in the video game, and is voiced by Andrew Moxham. One mission in the game has the player driving Vito Corleone to the hospital after he is shot by Sollozzo's men, while Fredo shoots at the gangsters shooting at the car.
- Puzo, Mario (1969). The Godfather (First Berkley ed.). Berkley Books. ISBN978-0-451-20576-6.
Casino With Al Pacino
- ^'The Godfather, Part II (1974)'. nytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- ^ abBote, Joshua (August 13, 2019). 'Chris Cuomo said 'Fredo' is an ethnic slur as he erupted in anger in a viral video. Is it?'. USA Today.
- ^Kellermanns, Franz W.; Hoy, Frank (September 13, 2016). The Routledge Companion to Family Business. London, England: Routledge. ISBN9781317419990 – via Google Books.
- ^Kozakis, Chris (December 15, 2003). Firing Fido!: How Radically Redefining Loyalty Unleashes True Leadership. Bloomington, Indiana: Trafford Publishing. ISBN9781412005654 – via Google Books.
- ^Santucci, Jeanine (August 13, 2019). 'Trump campaign site sells 'Fredo Unhinged' shirt following viral Chris Cuomo video'. USA Today. McLean, Virginia: Gannett. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- ^Horton, Alex (August 13, 2019). 'How Fredo, the tragic 'Godfather' character, became an insult wielded by Trump'. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: Nash Holdings.
- ^Nari, William Z. (August 14, 2019). ''Fredo' Is Not an Ethnic Slur'. National Review. New York City: National Review, Inc.
- ^'The Godfather (Video Game 2006) - IMDb'. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
Casino Royale Al Pacino
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