General Black Jack Pershing Apush

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Chapter 29

Key Terms/People
New Freedom (1912): Platform of reforms advocated by Woodrow Wilson in his first presidential campaign, including stronger antitrust legislate to protect small business enterprises from monopolies, banking reform, and tariff reductions.
New Nationalism (1912): State-interventionist reform program devised by journalist Herbert Croly and advocated by Theodore Roosevelt during his Bull Moose presidential campaign.
Underwood Tariff (1913): This tariff provided for a substantial reduction of taxes and enacted an unprecedented, graduated federal income tax.
Federal Reserve Act (1913): An act establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks and a Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the president, to regulate banking and create stability on a national scale in the volatile banking sector.
Federal Trade Commission Act (1914): A banner accomplishment of Woodrow Wilson's administration, this law empowered a standing, presidentially appointed commission to investigate illegal business practices in interstate commerce like unlawful competition false advertising, and mislabeling of goods.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914): Law extending the anti-trust protections of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and exempting labor unions and agricultural organizations from antimonopoly constraints.
holding companies: A company that owns part or all of the other companies' stock in order to extend monopoly control. Often, a holding company does not produce goods or services of its own but only exists to control over companies.
Workingmen's Compensation Act: Passed under Woodrow Wilson, this law granted assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability. It was a precursor to labor-friendly legislation passed during the New Deal.
Adamson Act (1916): This law established an eight-hour day for all employees on trains involved in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime.
Jones Act (1916): Law according territorial status to the Philippines and promising independence as soon as a 'stable government' could be established.
Tampico Incident (1914): An arrest of American sailors by the Mexican government that spurred Woodrow Wilson to dispatch the American navy to size the port of Veracruz in April 1914.
Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary, later joined by Turkey and Bulgaria, made up this alliance against the Allies in World War I.
Allies: Great Britain, Russia, and France, later joined by Italy, Japan, and the United States, formed this alliance against the Central Powers in World War I.
U-boats: German submarines, named for the German Unterseeboot, or 'undersea boat,' proved deadly for Allied ships in the war zone. U-boat attacks played an important role in drawing the United States into war.
Lusitania: British passenger liner torpedoed and sank by Germany on May 7, 1915.
Herbert Croly
Herbert David Croly (January 23, 1869 – May 17, 1930) was an intellectual leader of theprogressive movement as an editor, and political philosopher and a co-founder of the magazine The New Republic in early twentieth-century America. His political philosophy influenced many leading progressives including Theodore Roosevelt, as well as his close friends Judge Learned Hand and Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter.

Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was anAmerican lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.

José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (22 December 1850 – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and president of Mexico. Huerta's supporters were known as Huertistas during the Mexican Revolution. Huerta is still vilified by modern-day Mexicans, who generally refer to him as El Chacal ('The Jackal') or El Usurpador ('The Usurper').

Venustiano Carranza de la Garza (29 December 1859 – 21 May 1920) was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Victoriano Huerta regime in the summer of 1914, and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted. He was assassinated near the end of his term of office at the behest of a cabal of army generals resentful at his insistence that his successor be a civilian.

José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923) – better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or his nickname Pancho Villa – was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.

John Joseph 'Black Jack' Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948), was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.

Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican politician from New York.

John’s father was the proprietor of a General Store. He was not averse to taking some risk and that was an influence that Pershing would inherit when it came to exhibiting leadership. The store faced bankruptcy after the panic of 1873 and John’s father went on the road as a traveling salesman. The American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) consisted of the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing in 1917 to help fight World War I. NOTE: The ' Black Jack' sobriquet was not given to Pershing as a compliment. It was given to him by cadets and some other instructors at West Point where he was unpopular due to his very strict demands of them. September 13, 1860 - July 15, 1948 (Age: 87) Officer in the United States Army that led forces in World War I. He was the only person promoted to the highest rank ever held in the U.S.

AFP/AFP/Getty Images

On Thursday, Trump gave a shout-out to the late Gen. John J. Pershing on Twitter, reigniting the public's interest in the American military figure. During his service, Pershing got the nickname 'Black Jack,' and while that's an unassailably cool nickname, it wasn't originally intended as a compliment.

Pershing is most famous nowadays as the subject of a debunked urban legend which claims that he dipped bullets in pig's blood while fighting Muslim enemies in the Philippines. But Pershing had a long career in the U.S. military, commanding U.S. forces in Cuba, the Philippines, and Europe. He's the first and only active-duty officer to become General of the Armies, the highest-ranking position in the U.S. armed forces.

In 1897, Pershing became a tactical officer at West Point, and that's where he was given the nickname 'Black Jack.' There are two different (but not mutually exclusive) stories about how he got that name. According to one tale, Pershing was called 'Black Jack' because he commanded black troops during the American-Indian Wars of the late 19th century. It's also alleged that he was given the nickname due to the harsh, unforgiving manner of discipline he exerted during his time as a West Point instructor.

The first story makes sense. Pershing's first name is 'John,' for which 'Jack' is a nickname, and he was a white man who commanded black troops. Hence 'Black Jack.' The second story is more confusing, though. What does the nickname have to do with being a harsh disciplinarian? The phrase 'black jack' can be used to refer to a card game or a weapon, but nothing about it alludes to an instructor who rules with an iron fist.

General Black Jack Pershing Apush

General Black Jack Pershing Apush 1

Although the answer isn't entirely clear, now is probably a good time to mention that Pershing was initially given a much more reprehensible nickname: 'N-----r Jack.' That one didn't stick, and it quickly gave way to 'Black Jack.' But if Pershing was indeed disliked by his cadets as much as historians believe, and if those cadets did indeed him that nickname in response, that would strongly suggest that Pershing's nickname was intended primarily as a racist insult — an attempt to highlight his perceived negative traits by likening him to a black person and referencing his time commanding black troops.

BlackGeneral black jack pershing apush 1

General Black Jack Pershing Philippines

In any event, Trump was harshly criticized by Democrats and Republicans alike for giving new life to the discredited pig's blood myth, endorsing religious bigotry in the U.S. military, and mischaracterizing the service of a celebrated American general. Right-wing blogger Jennifer Rubin wrote on Twitter that, in light of Trump's Pershing comment, she's giving new consideration to the argument that Congress should remove Trump from office by invoking the 25th Amendment.